Federally chartered independent system operators (ISOs) now control the power grids and wholesale markets for more than half the retail power customers in the U.S. In such areas, electric bills may soon (or already) include a charge to pay for keeping installed generating capac-ity (ICAP) available regardless of how much electricity it actually produces. While that ICAP charge is controversial (some regions avoid or have fought against it), power customers having backup generators may also be able to make money from it.
Leaning on experience and data from various K-12 cities and projects, the author pursues some less conventional design approaches. They may revolve around radiant heating and/or cooling, but depending on school size and other factors, the smart use of heat recovery, DOAS, and improved central plants could also put a project on the HVAC honor roll.