Project Delivery Method: Integrated Project Delivery (IPD)

Owner Team: The hospital president, owner representative (consultant), project manager of capital projects, and facility manager (in-house staff)

Project Delivery Team: IPD refrigeration-engineer contractor (R-EC) project manager

R-EC Project Team: R-EC supervisor, refrigerant technician (in-house staff), third-party commissioning consultant (CxC), and infection control consultant (IC)

2018 Refrigeration ASHRAE Handbook: Systems and practice, Chapters 1-9

Project Type: Infrastructure improvements

References: 2018 ASHRAE Handbook – Chapter 50, “Terminology of Refrigeration,” Chapter 51, “Codes and Standards,” ASHRAE Standard 202, “Commissioning Process for Buildings and Systems,” ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15, “Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems,” and ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34, “Designation and Classification of Refrigerants”


R-EC Design Intent:

  • The R-EC system selection and design intent are based on the processes outlined in ASHRAE educational program: Review of international treaties and initiatives that support the transition from hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants toward non-ozone-depleting, low-global-warming-potential substances. Based on this and other technical papers focused on ozone depletion and global warming, the following DIDs apply:
    • Owner building program goals and additional goals (2020 HVAC Systems and Equipment, Chapter 1)
    • System constraints and constructability constraints (2020 HVAC Systems and Equipment, Chapter 1)
    • Finalized refrigerant replacement based on existing HVAC equipment
  • Program & Project Goals:
    • Functional goals: (2020 HVAC Systems and Equipment, Chapter 1)
    • Budget goals: First cost, operating cost, and life cycle cost
    • Timeline goals: Phased refrigeration replacement and required new equipment throughout the hospital’s refrigerant management inventory
    • Management goals: Zero ozone depletion and global warming milestones
  • Existing Conditions:
    • Central air systems using direct expansion (DX) systems
    • Chilled water systems using refrigerant cooling
    • Cold boxes and refrigerators
    • Refrigerant management software system


  • The R-EC design criteria shall be in sync with:
    • IPD project delivery method using a local refrigeration engineering and service company
    • Owner’s project design intent requirements
    • A review of proposed refrigerants and how they can be used in different HVACR applications based on theoretical and empirical analyses
    • The design criteria is based on an analytical analysis of existing refrigeration conditions, associated operation, and proactive maintenance management in sync with the hospital’s overall updating the policy and procedure manual as it pertains to refrigerant management and the environment
  • The design criteria shall be based on:
    • ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 15, “Safety Standard for Refrigeration Systems”
    • ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 34, “Designation and Classification of Refrigerants”
    • Next-generation refrigerant considerations, including ammonia (R-717); 2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (R-1234yf); and 1,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (R-1234ze) among others having minimal to zero GWP and ODP
  • Conceptual/schematic phase general notes:
    • The R-EC design engineer shall provide system flow diagrams with each R-EC system along with ATC sequences of operation revisions as well as a bill of materials, refrigerant operation and maintenance policy and procedures, refrigerant inventory, and safe disposal of existing refrigerants by code
    • The facility manager shall have the O&M technicians trained to accommodate P&P changes as they work in integrated project delivery with the R-EC firm

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